Aging is the inevitable process of becoming older. It represents the accumulation of changes over time and can encompass physical, psychological and social changes. There are a lot of causes of aging such as accumulated cellular damage caused by reactive molecules known as free oxygen radicals which cause for biological systems to fail, and the shortening of telomere which are the structures located at the ends of chromosomes that play an important role in cellular division causing for cellular senescence after some time. Both of these processes are considered to be the main cause of aging. However, no matter what the causes are, aging is an inevitable process and studies on how to increase the human lifespan and slow the aging process have been a focus of scientific research for many years now. Because aging is a time-related deterioration of the physiological functions of life, almost all people would lik e to slow this down. 

Due to the increasing number of scientific research on anti-aging, scientists were able to identify a wide range of different substances and compounds that have intrinsic anti-aging abilities. Moreso, these substances can be taken as supplements by people who are looking for natural yet still effective ways to slow down the aging process and prevent age-related disease. In order to provide you further knowledge regarding this matter, here is a list of the top 20 anti-aging supplements you can choose from in the market:

  1. Collagen
collagen peptides

(Image lifted from: https://www.fastcompany.com/90360737/the-ingestible-beauty-boom-how-vital-proteins-made-collagen-cool)

As you age, the skin loses collagen which weakens its structure and results in dermal damage. Hence, one of the first few visible signs of aging is wrinkles, fine lines, and other issues with skin appearance. Collagen has been well known as a anti-aging supplement because it can promote youthfulness through its potential to reduce the appearance of skin aging. Your body naturally synthesizes collagen protein. It maintains the structure, stability, and strength of the skin layers. There are two amino acids in the protein collagen. These amino acids include proline and glycine that are vital components for the formation and repair of joints, bones, muscles, and tendons. More importantly, these two amino acids are important in retaining the firm appearance of the skin. Thus, Collagen, being the most abundant protein in the body, gives structure to your skin, bones, muscles and connective tissue. It decreases the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines and improves the elasticity of your skin. It also helps to provide you a more restful sleep at night because it contains a significant amount of glycine.

As stated above, you lose collagen as you age. Collagen protein has too many benefits to keep it out of your diet or daily consumption. Therefore, it is important to increase collagen intake through consuming foods high in collagen protein such as bone broth, pork, salmon, chicken skins, egg yolk and eggshell membranes, and the beef tendon, tripe, and oxtail. However, the most effective way of increasing collagen intake is through collagen supplements. Most supplements in the market come in powder or capsule form. Moreover, a study found that a dosage of 2.5 grams per day to 10 grams per day of collagen could be beneficial for improving skin health and is significantly safe without noted side effects. However, it is still highly suggested that before you intake such supplements, you consult with your physician in order to produce the best results. 

2. Curcumin

Curcumin

(Image lifted from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/curcumin-for-arthritis-does-it-really-work-2019111218290)

Curcumin is the active compound found in turmeric. It is the compound responsible for the vibrant yellow color of the spice. Curcumin has been observed to have anti-inflammatory properties and is effective in improving many dermatological conditions associated with aging. These powerful anti-aging properties are linked to its potent antioxidant potential. Studies show that curcumin increases the activation of sirtuins and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which aids delaying cellular senescence and promoting cellular longevity. In animal studies, curcumin has shown to fight off cellular damage and increase the lifespan of fruit flies, roundworms, and mice. It has shown to postpone age-related disease and clear age-related symptoms. Moreover, anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin are important because as you age inflammation may be significantly increased by different triggers such as stress, gut imbalances, environmental toxins, and food intake. This chronic inflammation puts you at risk of serious conditions like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, and other chronic diseases. Also, studies have shown  that daily intake of curcumin supplements can significantly improve different skin conditions caused by photoaging such as the physical signs of aging and skin damage caused by UV exposure. 

Theoretically, you can eat a lot of turmeric root in order to harvest the benefits of its active component curcumin. However, in order to make life easier, you might just drink curcumin supplements available in the market that come in capsules. As per recommendation of the World Health Organization, the acceptable daily dose of curcuminoids, which is the active compounds present in turmeric including curcumin as food additives, is 3 mg/kg. Moreover, administration of two softgels daily of Curcumin supplements together with food is safe and has been shown to produce the benefits of Curcumin. However, it is good to note that before starting Curcumin supplements it is best to consult your doctor first. 

3. CoQ10

q10

(Image lifted from: https://www.exportersindia.com/xylose-pharma/q10-softgel-capsules-2914786.htm)

CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural antioxidant that the body produces in order for a variety of cells to utilize for growth and maintenance. It also plays a vital role in energy production and cellular protection against oxidative damage. Studies show that there is a decline in the levels of CoQ10 as you age making you more susceptible to oxidative stress due to a CoQ10 deficiency. Hence, it is important to increase the levels of the enzyme through intake of CoQ10 supplements. Studies have shown that daily administration of CoQ10 supplements alleviates age-related signs and symptoms. It improves skin smoothness and reduces the visible signs of aging such as fine lines and wrinkles. It also found that administration of CoQ10 supplements improves dermal thickness and hydration levels. It is recommended to drink a daily softgel capsule of either 50mg or 150mg dosage. However, physician’s advice should be consulted first before starting to drink any CoQ10 supplementation. 

4. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

(Image lifted from: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/egcg-epigallocatechin-gallate)

Epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG is a polyphenol compound found in high concentrations in green tea. It is a type of plant-based compound called catechin which is under the polyphenols. It offers a wide range of impressive health benefits such as reducing the risk of the development of certain cancers and health conditions like cardiovascular disease. Other than that, it can also reduce inflammation, aid weight loss, and help prevent brain disease. Studies also show that it has the ability to promote longevity through protecting against age-related disease development. EGCG can also protect against skin aging and wrinkles caused by ultraviolet (UV) light. Its anti-aging properties may be linked to its capacity to restore the mitochondrial function in cells and act on pathways involved in aging, including the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway (AMPK). Hence, EGCG acts as a potent antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative damage.

EGCG is present naturally in a number of plant-based foods such as green tea but it is also available as a dietary supplement that is sold in the form of an extract. In a single cup of green tea, it contains approximately 50 to 100mg of EGCG. However, developing specific dosage recommendations for supplements has been difficult, hence there is still no established recommended dose for the daily intake of EGCG. But studies show that intake levels of 338 mg of EGCG per day when ingested in solid supplemental form do not show any adverse health effects and are relatively safe. 

5. Theanine

Theanine

(Image lifted from: https://treebirdtea.com/blogs/news/green-tea-theanine-polyphenols)

L-theanine is an amino acid found frequently in tea leaves and in minute amounts in Bay Bolete mushrooms. It is also observed to be present in both green and black teas. Studies show that relaxation without drowsiness. It also has been proven to reduce stress and other factors causing aging. Moreover, it is most beneficial with those dealing with high levels of anxiety. Many drug stores all over the world sell L-theanine in pill or tablet forms but it is good to note that research has not yet established the daily dosage recommendation of the compound. However, there have been no reports of overdose or side effects of taking L-theanine and drinking tea is generally safe for almost all people.

6. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide

 Nicotinamide riboside - nicotinamide mononucleotide

   (Image lifted from: https://www.alexfergus.com/blog/nicotinamide-ribose-and-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-megadosing)

Both Nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) act as precursors to the formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) which is the compound found in almost every cell of the body and is involved in vital biological processes and mechanisms such as Gene expression, DNA repair, and energy metabolism. As you age, the levels of NAD+ decline. Studies suggest that this decline of NAD+ may be one of the factors for the accelerated physical decline and the development of age-related disease like Alzheimer’s. In animal studies, daily administration of NR and NMN significantly increased the levels of NAD+ which resulted in the reduction of age-related physical decline. In human studies, it has been proven that daily intake of 1 gram of NR supplements increased NAD+ levels in skeletal muscle and reduced the levels of inflammatory proteins in the body. However, authors of these studies strongly recommend that further research should still be conducted in order to confidently conclude the anti-aging effects of NR and NMN. 

7. Crocin

Crocin

(Image lifted from: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/saffron)

Saffron is one of the most expensive spices from the world and is commonly used in Indian and Spanish cuisine. Crocin is the yellow carotenoid pigment in saffron. This compound offers a wide range of health benefits such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and antidiabetic effects. Moreover, it has anti-aging potential for it can protect against age-related mental decline as recent studies show. In animal studies, the compound aids in protecting against nerve damage due to aging through inhibiting the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are thought to be one of the main compounds that cause aging. In human skin cells, Crocin has been proven to prevent aging through decreasing inflammation and protecting against damage from UV-light exposure. Today, Crocin can be harvested in Saffron food supplements which people can safely take up to 1.5 grams of per day. However, it is good to note that only daily 30 mg of saffron have been shown to be enough to reap its health benefits 

8. Rhodiola

(Image lifted from: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/rhodiola-rosea)

Rhodiola is a medicinal plant that has been observed to have anti-inflammatory and anti-aging abilities. It also decreases fatigue in stressful situations. Studies also showed that Rhodiola can lower anxiety and reduce depressive symptoms in people diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. In animal studies, Rhodiola rosea powder increased the lifespan of fruit flies on average. At this time, there is no established dose for Rhodiola supplements. Hence, it is important that you consult your physician first before using. 

9. Garlic

Garlic

(Image lifted from: https://blog-well.ca/garlic-supplements/)

Garlic is one of the most common food spices in the world. Other than giving additional rich taste in food, it has been proven to have powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is rich in a strong but often overlooked antioxidant called Allicin that is responsible for its strong smell and flavor. Once digested by the human gastrointestinal system, allicin generates sulfenic acid which is one of the fastest acting compounds that can counteract harmful free radicals. With this, garlic can fight against premature aging. Moreover, studies suggest that garlic can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, inhibit platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, prevent cancer, diseases linked with cerebral aging, arthritis, cataract formation, and repair skin layers, promote good blood circulation and high energy levels. 

10. Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Acetyl-L-Carnitine

 (Image lifted from: https://hosbeg.com/alc-basics-do-acetyl-l-carnitine-supplements-work/)

Acetyl-L-carnitine, also  known as ALC or ALCAR, is something our bodies make from L-carnitine. This amino acid can cross the blood-brain barrier and act as a potent and effective antioxidant. Studies have proven that it can promote brain function, reduce inflammation, enhance blood flow, increase mental and physical energy, and even improve focus. There is normal decline in memory and thinking skills that occur due to  aging. However, studies show that taking acetyl-L-carnitine improves memory and mental function in older people with some memory loss. Moreover, improves feelings of mental and physical tiredness in older people. Lastly,  the general safe dosage recommendation is no more than 2 grams each day.

11. Astragalus

Astragalus

(Image lifted from: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/astragalus)

Astragalus membranaceus is a herb that has been long used in traditional Chinese medicine for its stress-reducing abilities. It is well known for its wide range of health benefits such as immune-boosting, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. Studies show that it can reduce oxidative stress in cells and prevent cellular damage. In traditional medicine, it has been utilized to treat ailments such as fatigue, allergies, and common colds. Today, research is being conducted on its potential role against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Astragalus supplements are available as capsules and liquid extracts. The root can also be grounded into powder so that it can be used to make teas. There is still no established daily recommended dose for the supplement. However, most studies show that the clinical benefits can be harvested with a daily 9 to 30 grams daily dose of Astragalus. 

12. Polyphenols

Polyphenols

  (Image lifted from: https://decisionsindentistry.com/article/protective-role-polyphenols-oral-health)

Polyphenols are antioxidants that are naturally found in a wide array of brightly colored food. Red wine, dark chocolate, tea, and berries are some of the best-known sources. However, many other foods also offer significant amounts of these compounds such as fruits and vegetables including red cabbage, cacao, blueberries, and coffee. Studies have shown that polyphenols have anti-aging and anti-inflammatory benefits. It can protect your brain from stress and free radical damage, support learning and memory, and may help slow down brain aging. Moreover, consuming polyphenols is thought to boost digestion and brain health, as well as protect against heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and even certain cancers. While you need to eat a wide variety of brightly colored vegetables to have ample amounts of polyphenols, there are a lot of broad-spectrum polyphenol supplements in the market that will give you more efficient levels of the compound. Some supplements available in the market contain about 1,770mg per serving of nine different polyphenol-rich berries and botanicals. You can take four capsules daily of these supplements. 

13. Resveratrol

Resveratrol

  (Image lifted from: https://defatx.com/nutrition/6-potential-health-benefits-of-resveratrol-supplements/)

Resveratrol is a plant compound that acts like an antioxidant. Red wine, grapes, some berries and peanuts are some of the highest sources of this compound. Moreover, Resveratrol tends to be concentrated mostly in the skins and seeds of grapes and berries. Studies show that it may promote longevity by activating certain genes called sirtuins. It has been shown to increase the lifespan of fruit flies, yeasts, and nematodes. Resveratrol is sold as a capsule supplement in the market. 

14. Fisetin

Fisetin

(Image lifted from: https://www.bulletproof.com/supplements/age-immune/anti-aging-supplements/)

Fisetin is a flavonoid compound that’s considered a senotherapeutic, meaning it can kill senescent cells. Moreover, it is a plant chemical with profound antioxidant properties. Hence, it aids in protecting cells from oxidative damage. In animal studies, fisetin showed that it can reduce the number of senescent cells in tissues and extend lifespan. It also has anti-inflammatory effects which can improve vitality of cells. Fisetin is found naturally in apples, persimmons, onions, and other plants, however, the highest level of fisetin is observed in strawberries. Fisetin supplements in the market are available and a recommended dose of 1 gram a day is observed. 

15. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)

Pyrroloquinoline quinone-PQQ

  (Image lifted from: https://www.bulletproof.com/supplements/age-immune/anti-aging-supplements/)

Pyrroloquinoline quinone, or PQQ, is a relatively novel discovery in anti-aging science. It is a micronutrient that works as an antioxidant. It has the ability to fight against free radicals and improve heart and brain functions. It supports learning and memory. Studies also show that it has anti-inflammatory qualities. It can be naturally harvested in foods like green tea and green peppers. However, there are already food supplements available in the market. The ones sold in the market have ActivePQQ as the main ingredient. This is uniquely designed to improve PQQ absorption by working with a nutrient called co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) which is another antioxidant. The recommended dose 1 to 4 ampules a day. 

16. Vitamin C

Vitamin C

   (Image lifted from: https://www.nutraingredients-asia.com/Article/2020/03/09/COVID-19-China-retailers-and-suppliers-report-surge-in-demand-for-Vitamin-C-supplements)

Vitamin C is one of the most famous vitamin supplements in the world. It is naturally found in human skin and a wide array of food and vegetables. It aids in many biological functions, such as promoting collagen synthesis, maintaining skin elasticity, and protecting the skin from UV damage or photodamage. Studies show that daily intake of vitamin C significantly increased collagen production and decreased the rate of elastin loss. Both of these fight off the physical signs of aging such as wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin.  The recommended dose for people is usually 100mg  to 2000mg per day. Special modifications are also observed, for example for pregnant women the recommended dose is 120 mg per day.

17. Zinc and Copper

 Zinc and Copper

 (Image lifted from: https://www.bulletproof.com/supplements/age-immune/anti-aging-supplements/)

Zinc and copper complements well when combined as a food supplement. The human skin contains 6% of the total concentration of zinc in our body, and this trace element plays a vital role in skin maintenance. Other than that, it also promotes healthy immune function, energy production, and mood. When copper is present, zinc and coppers combine to form a potent and effective antioxidant called copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD). Studies show that this fights physical signs of aging in the skin and also reduces the risk of developing age-related diseases. A once daily supplement can be taken in order to reap the benefits of this type of antioxidant.  

18. Whey Protein

Whey Protein

 (Image lifted from: https://www.bulletproof.com/supplements/age-immune/anti-aging-supplements/)

Most people think that Whey protein is just made for body builders in order to gain muscles. However, this is not true. Whey protein provides the liver with all the necessary amino acids to build glutathione which is the master of all antioxidants. Glutathione aids the liver in neutralizing toxins from the environment, food, and cellular by products. With this, it helps fight off oxidative damage and all the signs of aging. One can take 1 to 2 tablespoons of Whey Protein daily. 

19. Vitamin A-D-K

Vitamin A-D-K

 (Image lifted from: https://www.bulletproof.com/supplements/age-immune/anti-aging-supplements/)

Today, there are a lot of multivitamins available in the market. One of them is the supplement with vitamins A, D, and K. These three vitamins work together in order to promote a good immune system, cardiovascular and skeletal health. It assists in the gene expression of multiple enzymes in the body that is vital in order to fight off free radicals. It also supports calcium metabolism and transport and bone formation. An intake of capsule once daily is recommended. 

20. Apigenin

Apigenin

  (Image lifted from: https://www.huffpost.com/entry/apigenin-cancer-celery-artichokes-flavonoids_n_3780542)

Apigenin is the flavonoid found in celery and many other fruits, vegetables, and herbs such as chamomile.  Studies have shown that Apigenin promotes wound healing and tissue repair. Moreover, it can significantly increase collagen synthesis, fighting off the physical signs of aging in the skin. However, Apigenin has also been observed to be a sedative in high quantities. Hence, if you are planning to intake this supplement, it is better to consult with your doctor first.

References:  

  1. Asprey, D. Bulletproof. 2019. 13 Anti-Aging Supplements To Turn You Into Benjamin Button. Retrieved from: https://www.bulletproof.com/supplements/age-immune/anti-aging-supplements/. Retrieved on 18 June 2020. 
  2. George, L. Shape. 2019. The Best Anti-Aging Supplements For All Age Groups. Retrieved from: https://shapescale.com/blog/health/the-best-anti-aging-supplements/. Retrieved on 18 June 2020. 
  3. Gorin, A. The Healthy. 2020. 13 Anti-Aging Supplements Doctors Trust the Most. Retrieved from: https://www.thehealthy.com/beauty/anti-aging/doctors-recommended-anti-aging-supplements/. Retrieved on 18 June 2020. 
  4. Seitz, A. Healthline. 2020. The 12 Best Anti-Aging Supplements. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/anti-aging-supplements. Retrieved on 18 June 2020. 
  5. Sinha, R. StyleCraze. 2020. 12 Best Anti-Aging Supplements That May Actually Work. Retrieved from: https://www.stylecraze.com/articles/best-anti-aging-supplements-worth-taking/. Retrieved on 18 June 2020.