The skin naturally becomes less elastic as a person gets older. Because of this natural loss of skin elasticity, wrinkle and fine line formation occurs around the forehead, mouth, nose, and between the eyebrows. With that, there is an increasing market for anti-aging products and procedures. More people are getting fond of cosmetic products and procedures that fight the visible signs of aging. With these cosmetic products and procedures, the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines are reduced. 

Hyaluronic acid is naturally produced by the body. Water retention in the skin is achieved because of this substance. Hyaluronic acid has the incredible ability to attract and store moisture in the skin, helping to make the skin look healthy and flexible. As one ages, the production of hyaluronic acid significantly slows down, and hence the skin loses its ability to retain moisture. As a result, the dermal layer of the skin loses its firmness and thickness. This causes the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles which makes people look older and tired. Although the human skin cannot replenish the same amount of hyaluronic acid that it naturally produces, with today’s technology, there are several options that can aid in restoring the skin’s need for hyaluronic acid. One of the most effective solutions is through dermal fillers or through injecting hyaluronic acid on the skin. This procedure does not only help in reversing the signs of aging, but is also effective in preventing the appearance of physical signs of aging such as fine lines and wrinkles. 

What are dermal fillers?

Dermal fillers or injections are gel-like injections frequently composed of hyaluronic acid. Hence, this is also sometimes called as hyaluronic acid fillers. The main purpose of dermal fillers is to add volume to sunken areas of the skin and minimize the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles in order to make your skin look younger and better. A patient can have dermal fillers in different parts of the face such as the mouth, cheeks, jawline, and around the eyes. Dermal fillers can also be utilized as a lip filler when injected into the lips. Because as you age, you start to produce less elastin and collagen, hence fine lines and wrinkles appear. However, a more plump and smooth skin is achieved because dermal fillers are able to restore the lost volume to the area of the face and also causes for more production of elastin and collagen in order to help in producing a more lifted and younger looking skin. 

Benefits of Dermal fillers

  1. Immediate Results With No Downtime

One of the best things about dermal fillers is its ability to give the desired results immediately without having a downtime. Immediate results are observed after an injection. Hence, changes in the appearance should be observed by the patient immediately. Also, there is no lengthy recovery time unlike other cosmetic procedures such as plastic surgery which would require the patient to have multiple days off of work in order to recover. Within a few minutes, a patient can have dermal filler treatment in different areas of the face. After that, the patient can continue doing his or her daily tasks or go back to work, without having to worry about anything post procedure.

  1. Provides Long-Lasting Results

Dermal fillers promise to give you long term results. Most of the time, patients are able to enjoy the results of younger and smoother looking skin for approximately a year. However, this is still a case to case basis because some patients may be asked to have a quick touch-up after four to six months following his or her first treatment. In order to maintain the results, it is usually recommended to have a follow up treatment before the dermal filler has fully metabolized.

  1. Gives Natural Benefits for the Skin

Because most dermal fillers are made up of hyaluronic acid which is a naturally occurring substance in the skin, it aids your body to naturally produce components that will make your skin healthier and younger. Dermal fillers composed of hyaluronic acid also aids in minimizing the chances of your body reacting to the fillers. Because of this, it results to a skin that looks and feels naturally supple and healthy.

  1. Subtle Results Are Delivered

One of the things that people love about dermal fillers is that it gives subtle results compared to other cosmetic results such as plastic surgery. This is exactly what most patients want in this procedure because not all people appreciate the drastic changes in their appearance. Hence, you only observe a younger version of yourself post procedure, instead of looking totally different after the treatment. A naturally fresh face is delivered by dermal fillers,  unlike invasive cosmetic surgery procedures that produce stiff-looking and unnatural facial features. 

  1. Aids In Boosting Your Confidence

Dermal fillers are able to improve your self-confidence after treatment because you feel and look younger and better. A more youthful look to your face directly affects your confidence. Hence, with the help of certified medical  professionals who can do dermal fillers, you will not only look good but also feel good.

  1. Fuller lips

Most people think that dermal fillers are only utilized in order to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles in areas of the face. However, dermal fillers can also be utilized to fill in your lips. Hence, if you are one of those people who have naturally thin lips or thin lips due to aging, dermal fillers can be of help to you. More than making the lips look plumper and fuller, dermal fillers can also aid in softening the appearance of wrinkles around the mouth. 

  1. Aids In Minimizing the Appearance of Scars

Scars are one of the hardest skin problems to treat. So if you are one of those who tried many creams and other cosmetic products and procedures in order to treat and cover your scars due to acne or other causes, dermal fillers are an effective way in order to improve the appearance of scars. However, you must talk first to your certified aesthetic professional in order to determine if dermal fillers are suitable in treating your scars.

  1. Increases Collagen Production on the Skin

Some dermal fillers have the ability to stimulate the production of natural collagen in the skin. Other than the natural decrease in the production of collagen, sun damage is also one of the factors that can significantly impact the production of collagen in the body. Signs of aging become more apparent as collagen breaks down in the body due to sun exposure resulting in a more rough and wrinkled skin. Studies have shown that with dermal fillers the body is able to produce more collagen which results in a smoother and younger looking skin. 

Comparison Of Different Dermal Fillers 

  1. Restylane Fillers
Restylane Fillers

Image lifted from: https://westskinlaser.com/restylane-maryland/

Restylane filler is a crystal clear injectable gel that is composed of hyaluronic acid. This acid is a natural substance that is present in the body. Furthermore, restylane is non animal based and free from animal protein. With these, allergy pretesting is not necessary for allergic response is unlikely. Restylane also contains 0.3% lidocaine. This is added in order to reduce the pain and  discomfort associated with the treatment.

  • Parent Company

Galderma is the company that manufactures Restylane. It is a pharmaceutical company with over 6,000 employees worldwide. Present in more than 100 countries, Galderma specializes in dermatology and other cosmetic products and procedures.

  • Use or Purpose

Generally, like all other dermal fillers, Restylane is a brand of hyaluronic acid–based facial fillers utilized in order to smoothen fine lines and wrinkles. Specifically, there are different types of Restylane that can be used for different purposes such as for lip enhancement, targeting lines around your mouth, adding volume to your cheeks, and minimizing dark circles under your eyes. Restylane has Hyaluronic acid which naturally occurs in the connective tissue of the skin. Hence, with that, hyaluronic acid is frequently utilized for aesthetic procedures. Most people, if not all, can undergo the Restylane procedure since it is easily done and recovery is very swift. However, it must be noted that there are people who should not get Restylane procedure such as those who are allergic to bacterial protein, immunocompromised, taking blood thinners, pregnant or breastfeeding, and under age 21.

  • Procedure

Restylane is considered as a relatively simple cosmetic procedure. It involves no incisions, thus it can be easily done even in your doctor’s office. It’s usually done with local anesthesia to minimize any discomfort you might experience. Restylane injections only take about a few minutes to half an hour, depending on how much work you are having done and what areas you are trying to cover. To be more specific, the procedure of a restylane injection involves the following: (1) Your physician will assess which areas of the face need the restylane injection. After choosing which sites to inject, your doctor will apply antiseptic. Your physician will decide how much Restylane is needed for each treatment site. After that, using an ultrafine needle, your physician will inject the Restylane under your skin into the treatment areas. Once done, you can immediately go back to your daily activity or work. 

  • Targeted Areas

As stated above, there are different kinds of Restylane that can be utilized for the different areas of the face. These areas include lips, cheeks, facial folds, and wrinkles. It must be noted that they are all hyaluronic acid–based fillers, however each type of Restylane was manufactured for a different specific purpose. It is good to note that Restylane Silk is the first FDA-approved filler uniquely made for lip augmentation and for wrinkles around your mouth. Restylane Lyft is for cheek augmentation and midface contour deficiencies as well as things like laugh lines. It provides more volume and fullness in these areas. Restylane is used for facial wrinkles and folds, lip augmentation, and tear troughs or the dark circles under the eyes. Restylane Refyne is utilized for wrinkles that can occur from your nose to the corners of the mouth. Restylane Defyne is also utilized for wrinkles around your nose and mouth. It is important to talk to your physician about your desired results because there are various kinds of Restylane and the different parts of the face for which it can be used. Most certainly, they will know what to use and what will work best for you and your concerns. 

  • Cost

Depending on  the treatment area, the type of Restylane filler, and how many syringes to use, the cost of Restylane treatments can significantly vary. However, it is good to note that Restylane is usually sold by the syringe and begins around $275. Generally, most Restylane procedures fall between $275 and $700. Furthermore, since it is considered a cosmetic enhancement, it must be noted that Restylane treatments are not covered by traditional health insurance. However, many physicians have financing plans that allow you to pay in installments.

  • Technology and Patent

Restylane works through restoring volume underneath the skin skin where you have lost collagen and other tissue secondary to aging. This aids in smoothing out and lifting skin, making it look younger and healthier. The hyaluronic acid in Restylane attaches to your skin and the acid promotes water retention and reabsorption, as a result provides volume to the skin. Furthermore, the acid also attracts more water helping to preserve the recently added volume.

It must be noted that the natural hyaluronic acid in the bodies forms in long molecular chains. A naturally present hyaluronic acid usually degrades after 24 to 48 hours. However, the technology of Restylane dermal fillers lies on its cross-linking structure that stabilizes the hyaluronic acid. This cross-linking results into a chain of the hyaluronic acid molecules that forms a three-dimensional network which is very alike to the naturally occurring hyaluronic acid in skin, however does not degrade at the same pace. With that, the Restylane delivers results that last up to at least 24 months with just one retreatment. Lastly, Restylane has a  patent of U.S. PATENT 5,827,937. 

  • Legalization

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Restylane in December of 2003. Since 2003, it has been proven that Restylane is safe and effective in the treatment of nasolabial folds with the results from the pivotal multicenter, double-blind clinical study. It must be noted that Restylane is made by Q-Med AB in Sweden and distributed in the US by Medicis Pharmaceutical Corporation. Furthermore, Restylane is based on non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) and produced from cultures of Streptococcus equi via a proprietary process crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE). The cross linked Hyaluronic acid is usually formulated with phosphate buffered saline in a final concentration of 20 mg/mL. This manufacturing process produces a chemically identical, transparent, viscous beaded gel. Moreover, Restylane contains 100,000 gel beads. It is also good to note that Restylane is isovolemic. This means that it retains most of its initial filler volume throughout the degradation phase. The benefit produced by this filler is through a volume effect and by attracting and binding water. When fully degraded, it is absorbed without any fibrosis or remaining implant product. Metabolism by-products are water and carbon dioxide. Recent histopathological research with Restylane has shown that it also stimulates neocollagenesis, helping with the restoration of lost collagen.

  1. Juvederm
Juvederm

Image lifted from: https://www.southtulsaplasticsurgery.com/juvedermtm-dermal-fillers

  • Parent Company 

The Allergan established The Allergan Foundation in 1998. This is a private US-based charitable foundation. Years after that, Allergan acquired Inamed in 2005 which had a licensing agreement with Corneal Group Laboratoires for Juvederm products. In 2006, Allergan gained rights to Juvederm products.

  • Use or Purpose

Just like all other dermal fillers, Juvederm works through adding volume to the facial tissue using its active component known as hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is a natural substance found in the human body. It is responsible for the stimulation and production of the connective tissue known as collagen that plumps the skin. Moreover, the production of hyaluronic acid and collagen decreases as you age. This results in an increased appearance of sagging and wrinkling of the facial skin. Hence, Juvederm works through correcting this loss of collagen and volumizing the skin in order to produce a smoother and younger looking skin. 

  • Procedure

Before you undergo Juvederm treatment, it is important to have a consultation first with a medical professional regarding your cosmetic goals and expectations. Juvederm treatments are usually done on the same day of consultation because they are considered as a minimally invasive procedure. However, there are simple instructions that you need to follow before treatment. These generally include avoiding medications like aspirin, ibuprofen, and St. John’s wort. It is also important to stop and avoid alcohol in the weeks leading up to treatment. Smoking is also discouraged before treatment. Avoiding these things can aid in preventing the development of bruising post treatment. It is also important to let your medical provider know any of your allergies or sensitivities.

Your doctor, physician assistant, or nurse typically uses a pen to mark the areas to be treated during the procedure. Your doctor will then inject Juvederm into the target area. After that, they will also lightly massage the area in order to make sure that the dermal filler has been evenly distributed. Massaging can also reduce the chance of swelling. It usually takes approximately 15 to 60 minutes for the entire procedure to finish, depending on the area being treated. It is also good to note that during the procedure, Juvederm injections contain a small amount of pain-reducing lidocaine. This will aid in minimizing any pain or discomfort you might experience during treatment. 

  • Target Areas
juvederm

Image lifted from: https://www.groupon.com/articles/juvederm

Juvéderm Ultra Plus is utilized for volumizing and correcting deeper folds, whereas Juvéderm Ultra is frequently used for contouring and volumizing medium depth facial wrinkles and lip augmentation. To be more specific, Juvederm Voluma XC is utilized for the cheeks, while Juvederm Ultra Plus XC and Juvederm Vollure XC is used to correct problems around the nose and mouth, while Juvederm Ultra XC and Juvederm Volbella XC is utilized for the lips. It must be noted that XC indicates that there is lidocaine in the syringe to help make the injection less painful.

  • Precautions 

According to the official website of Juvederm, there are precautions that you must take note of. It is important to inform your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding because the safety of Juvederm products for utilization during pregnancy or while breastfeeding has not been studied. Furthermore, the safety of Juvederm Voluma XC in patients under 35 years or over 65 years, the safety of Juvederm XC and Juvederm Ultra XC injectable gels in patients under 18 years, and the safety of Juvederm Vollure XC and Juvederm Volbella XC in patients under 22 years has not yet been established and studied. Also, it is good to note that the safety and effectiveness of Juvederm Voluma XC in areas other than the cheek area, Juvederm XC and Juvederm Vollure XC for areas other than facial wrinkles and folds, and Juvederm Ultra XC and Juvederm Volbella XC in areas other than the lips and perioral area have not been established in clinical studies. It is also important to tell your physician if you have a history of excessive scarring such as hypertrophic scarring and keloid formations, and pigmentation disorders, for Juvederm products may lead to additional scars and changes in pigmentation if the patient is not evaluated properly. In addition to that, you must also tell your physician if you underwent or are planning other laser treatments or a chemical peel. If these procedures are performed after treatment, there is a probable risk of inflammation at the treatment site. It must also be noted that there is a higher risk for side effects for patients who experience skin injury near the site of injection with the Juvederm product. Moreover, as use of these products may result in an increased risk of infection, it is important to tell your doctor if you are on immunosuppressive therapy utilized in order to decrease the body’s immune response. Also, as they may result in increased bruising or bleeding at the injection site, it is also vital to inform your doctor if you are using medications that can prolong bleeding, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or other blood thinners. Lastly, it is important to minimize strenuous exercise, exposure to extensive sun or heat, and alcoholic beverages within the first 24 hours following treatment. 

  • Cost

The national average cost of hyaluronic acid injections in the United States such as Juvederm was $620 per syringe in 2016. Typically, a Juvéderm treatment will cost about $450–$600 per syringe. However, one our site, you can find Juvéderm treatments for less than $400. Hence, the cost of a Juvederm treatment can greatly vary depending on your physician’s experience, geographic location, and the number of syringes used. It is important to note that health insurance does not cover the cost since dermal fillers are an elective treatment. 

  • Series
TYPEBENEFITSLASTSGOOD TO KNOW
Juvederm Ultra XCsoftens moderate to severe nasolabial folds and Plumps lipsUp to 1 yearThis treatment works best for bigger lips
Juvederm Volbella XCSmoothing vertical lip lines around the mouth while subtly plumping lipsUp to 1 yearTreatment works best for subtly bigger lips
Juvederm Voluma XCAdds volume to cheeksUp to 2 yearsFrequently utilized for adults age 35 and older
Juvederm XCSoftens moderate to severe nasolabial foldsUp to 1 yearThe first Juvederm product and was approved by the FDA in 2006
  • Technology and Patent

Juvederm is a bacterium-derived nonanimal stabilized Hyaluronic Acid. Juvederm Ultra and Ultra Plus are smooth, malleable gels with a homologous consistency that use a new technology called Hylacross™ technology. They have a high concentration of cross-linked Hyaluronic Acids, which accounts for its longevity. As stated above, Juvederm Ultra Plus is used for volumizing and correcting deeper folds, whereas Juvederm Ultra is best for contouring and volumizing medium depth facial wrinkles and lip augmentation. On the other hand, Juvederm Vollure XC utilizes a special technology known as Vycross which is also used in Juvederm Voluma XC and Juvederm Volbella XC in order to hold the hyaluronic acid together into a cohesive gel, which keeps it intact after it is injected into the skin. Compared to the  Juvederm’s Hylacross technology which uses various degrees of cross-linking of mainly high molecular weight hyaluronic acid, Vollure XC’s Vycross technology links both high and low molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

  • Legalization

Juvederm products by Allergan, Inc. comprises a sterile, biodegradable, non-pyrogenic, viscoelastic, clear, colorless, homogenized gel consisting of cross-linked hyaluronic acid formulated at a concentration of 24 mg/ml in a physiologic buffer. The Juvéderm product line consisting of Juvederm Plus and Juvederm Ultra Plus was approved by the FDA in 2006.

  1. Stylage
good-lip-fillers

Image lifted from: https://bhrcenter.com/good-lip-fillers/

  • Parent Company

In 2011, Stylage was introduced to the UK. Stylage products are manufactured by the French company Vivacy Laboratories. Stylage is the first hyaluronic acid dermal filler with local anaesthetic lidocaine (lignocaine) and an antioxidant, in the form of mannitol.

  • Use or Purpose

Fine lines and wrinkles are just some of the aging concerns addressed by Stylage fillers. Stylage products are significantly effective in the treatment of superficial wrinkles and fine lines such as cheek wrinkles, glabellar frown lines, marionette lines, perioral lines, crow’s feet and nasolabial folds or those furrows extending from the base of the nose to the corners of the mouth, as well as the tear troughs. Just like the Juvederm, Stylage is indicated for the correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and folds such as nasolabial folds. Stylage can also be utilized in order to treat volume loss in the hands.

Stylage Special Lips, as the name implies,  is designed for lip enhancement and correction. It also helps in augmenting lip volume while defining the contour of the lips. Furthermore, it also corrects the size of a disproportionate lower or upper lip and reduces the appearance of perioral, or smoker’s, lines above the upper lip. Stylage Special Lips also increases lip volume while subtly softening the look of vertical lip lines. 

Volume restoration and facial remodeling can also be achieved through the Stylage products. To be more specific, Stylage XL and Stylage XXL aid in restoring facial contours and volume. Other tha augmenting the cheekbone area, Stylage fillers also effectively correct mild to severe skin sagging which is medically known as facial ptosis. Moreover, fortified with volumizing ingredients, it aids adult patients to increase cheek volume for a more youthful and smoother appearance.

Bio-revitalization and skin hydration are additional benefits offered by Stylage Hydro and Stylage Hydromax. In particular, the Stylage Hydro improves skin elasticity and revitalizes the neck, décolleté, backs of the hands, and face. It can also treat skin dehydration of moderate severity. For those who have severe dehydration, it is usually recommended to use a stronger formulation such as Stylage Hydromax. Generally, these two are utilized in order to improve skin hydration, elasticity, and skin tone. These injectables are frequently used for the face, neck, and backs of the hands.

  • Procedure

Just like any dermal filler treatment, it is important to have your medical history assessed first before proceeding to the treatment. It is also important to have your physician assess your skin for inflammation or infections at the injection site that may pose possible complication post treatment. With that, physicians usually do not inject into infected or inflamed skin. Stylage products frequently come in a  prefilled 1ml syringe that is sterilized using moist heat autoclaving. There are appropriate injection techniques and indications for each stylage product, you can ask your physician about them in order to be more knowledgeable regarding the procedure. Also, allow your physician to discuss the possible side effects and the expected results with the treatment. Once these are done, your physician will prepare the syringe and treatment site for injection. The right dosage will be determined by your physician, in order to make sure that the treatment site will not be overcorrected. After the injection, the physician usually will massage the treatment area in order to properly distribute the gel. Lastly, aftercare methods are usually advised by the physician in order to get the optimal results. 

  • Target Areas

Stylage dermal fillers are extremely versatile. They are utilized in order to correct Glabellar frown lines, Crow’s feet, cheek wrinkles, cheek volume loss, or cheek contours, sagging facial skin, nasolabial folds, Marionette lines, backs of the hands, lip contours, smoker’s lines, or augmentation, and lip volume or contours. 

  • Cost

The prices of Stylage will depend on the specific product used, the clinic or practitioner, and the type of treatment. Patients can expect a Stylage treatment to cost approximately more or less $400. You can talk with your medical provider regarding the cost and mode of payment because some providers offer installments. Furthermore, it is important to note that health insurance does not cover the cost of Stylage for it is considered as an elective treatment.

  • Series

Just like other dermal fillers, Stylage is one of the numerous Hyaluronic Acid-based remedies. Undergoing a Stylage treatment results in a softer and more delicate action making the skin fresh and youthful. Unlike other dermal fillers, Stylage is the first dermal filler that uses Hyaluronic Acid with Mannitol and Lidocaine. Stylage products are combined with an antioxidant, Mannitol, naturally present in nature in celery, olives and raspberries to reduce the side effects of hyaluronic acid such as redness and swelling. The addition of Mannitol, also known as the free radical scavenger, limits the effects of free radicals on the dermis and on the product injected, hence reducing the risk of post-injection inflammation and preventing the hyaluronic acid gels structure degradation by the body. Furthermore, this combination provides a smooth and comfortable procedure with natural and long-lasting effect. 

The company-manufacturer of Stylage produces different types of the product including Stylage S, M, L, XL, Stylage Special Lips, Stylage Hydro, and Hydro Max. On one hand, Stylage S, M, L, XL and Special Lips have cross-linked hyaluronic acid IPN-Like plus Mannitol. They are specifically designed for the natural correction of superficial lines and wrinkles. On the other hand, Stylage M and Special Lips Lidocaine have cross-linked hyaluronic acid IPN-Like plus Mannitol plus 0.3% of lidocaine.

  • Technology and Patent

As stated above, the Stylage product line is manufactured by Vivacy laboratories. The concentration of hyaluronic acid in the products indicated as fillers varies from 16 to 26 mg/dL. The products have a wide range of concentration in order to cover many different clinical indications. Furthermore, the company uses IPN-like® technology for its crosslinking process. As described by the manufacturer, this patented technology results from the association of two or more monophasic hyaluronic acid chains previously crosslinked. Through weaker links, known as hydrogen bridges, these hyaluronic acid chains bind to each other. In this way, an interaction between molecules happens, increasing greater cohesion of the gel without the need to add more amounts of chemical agents. Hence, a more resistant gel with more flexibility will facilitate its injection. In addition to that, in the Stylage product line, there is a commercial presentation whose main purpose is merely hydrating the skin, without increase in volume. To that end, it resorts to hyaluronic acid in its natural, not crosslinked form, Stylage Hydro, with a concentration of 14 mg/mL. 

  • Safety Information

Generally, Stylage products are regarded as safe. Several clinical studies have been conducted that show patients who undergo Stylage treatments have a very low rate of experiencing adverse effects. Stylage is made of high-purity, medical-grade hyaluronic acid derived from non-animal origins, and the manufacturing process of Stylage products complies with international safety standards. However, even with this quality, there are still few expected side effects that patients may encounter around the injection site such as erythema or redness, itching, discoloration, pain, swelling, and tenderness. It is good to note that mannitol present in the Stylage products may aid in reducing the post-injection inflammation, while also slowing down the degradation of the hyaluronic acid.

  • Legalization

Stylage products are approved for use by the health ministries and institutions of the UK, Canada, and other countries around the world. However, it is not FDA approved for use in the US. This is not to say that Stylage does not work well, but this has something more to do with safety concerns around how the product might have been handled and/or stored prior to arrival in the US.  

References: 

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  2. Carter, A. Healthline. 2018. Restylane: What You Should Know. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/restylane#targeted-areas. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
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  4. Food and Drug Administration. 2012. Restylane. Retrieved from: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf4/P040024S056c.pdf. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
  5. Groupon. 2018. Juvéderm FAQs: What It Does, Cost & More. Retrieved from: https://www.groupon.com/articles/juvederm. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
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  7. Medica Depot. 2019. Stylage. Retrieved from: https://www.medicadepot.com/brands/stylage.html#:~:text=Cost%20of%20Stylage,and%20the%20type%20of%20treatment. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
  8. Ramos-E-Silva M, Fonteles LA, Lagalhard CS, Fucci-da-Costa AP. STYLAGE®: a range of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers containing mannitol. Physical properties and review of the literature. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2013;6:257-261. Published 2013 Oct 23. doi:10.2147/CCID.S35251
  9. Raskal Medical Blog. 2018. Stylage vs Juvederm: What’s The Difference?. Retrieved from: https://www.raskelmedical.com/blog/stylage-vs-juvederm-filler-comparison.html. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
  10. Restylane. 2020. The Science Behind Restylane. Retrieved from: https://www.restylane.com/en/the-science-behind-restylane#:~:text=Restylane%20dermal%20fillers%20contain%20hyaluronic,with%20a%20cross%2Dlinking%20technology.&text=It%20is%20the%20brand%20all,been%20performed%20worldwide%20using%20Restylane. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
  11. SknClinics. 2019. Juvederm. Retrieved from: https://www.sknclinics.co.uk/treatments-and-pricing/juvederm. Retrieved on 24 July 2020.
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